ECBT dictionaries

ECBT stands for “Early Chinese Buddhist Translations”

These dictionaries are in fact spezialized glossaries for the first Chinese translations of Mahayana sutras that mark the beginning of what has been termed the “Buddhist Conquest of China” (Professor Erik Zürcher). They are greatly indebted to the monumental work of Professor Seishi Karashima (The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, Tokyo, Japan; Digital versions have been made available by the Library and Information Center of Dharma Drum Buddhist College (

Kumārajīva: Lotus Sūtra · Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra · 妙法蓮華經 (miàofǎ liánhuá jīng; myōhō-renge-kyō) Vol. IV. S. Karashima, A Glossary of Kumarajiva’s Translation of the Lotus Sutra (2001) ISBN 4-9980622-3-9

The Morpheus version of Professor Karashima’s dictionary has been prepared by Peter Hauer (Vienna, Austria & Santa Maria, Azores, Portugal).